What is the microprocessor and what is it for? What types are there + features?

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Pavel Yosifovich
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The microprocessor or central processing unit, CPU (Central Processing Unit), is the brain of a computer. It receives information from the outside through other devices, interprets it, executes instructions and emits a response, as would the brain of any living being.

Just as a brain is made up of different types of neurons, microprocessors are made up of a silicon chip or tablet, which contains integrated circuits, transistors and is protected by a ceramic and plastic coating.

As can be deduced from its name, the microprocessor is a microscopic circuit made up of millions of transistors integrated in a single piece plate of little thickness. The microprocessor (micro) has the task of carrying out all the calculation operations and controlling what happens in the computer, receiving information and giving orders for the operation of the other elements.



Functions of a microprocessor

From a technical point of view, microprocessors are used to retrieve, interpret, execute instructions, and function as a system computer, being able to perform arithmetic and also logical operations.

Programs stored in main memory need to be run, and that's where the microprocessor that manages the data operates. Its speed is measured in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz), where 1.000 MHz equals 1 GHz.

It happens that the hertz express the number of operations that a microprocessor can perform per second. For example, it happens that a processor with a speed of 1 GHz is capable of performing up to 1 billion operations in just one second. As expected, the higher this value, the faster the processor.

Types of microprocessors and their characteristics

Microprocessors are classified based on various factors. These factors are designed to gauge the speed of the processor and the amount of information it can transfer.



The speed indices of microprocessors are measured in gigahertz or megahertz as we said before, while the amount of information they can transfer is measured in kilobytes or megabytes.

Obviously, the highest capacity and fastest processors are the most expensive on the market. In this sense they exist cheap processors (with less GHz) and others of enormous power. Some have been designed for specific tasks:

  • To perform graphic works.
  • To be used as a server.
  • To browse the web only.
  • To run the office processes.

The most common way to classify microprocessors is their speed. The speed of the microprocessors is one of the most important characteristics for your choice. And that has a lot to do with the needs of the internet.

The digital network is increasingly inclined to multimedia contents, which deserve one faster connection speed, and thus a much faster processor.

We have the case of the higher range from Intel, which are Core i3, Core i5 e Core i7. It is a group of processors with up to 4 cores. They have an Intel x86-64 architecture. Their speeds range from 1,06 GHz to 2,66 GHz in the case of laptops.

It is worth saying that in the case of PCs they are really fast. They range from 2,93 GHz to an impressive 3,46 GHz. What is Intel's fastest processor? It is about Core i9. Their speeds range from 3,2 GHz to 3,7 GHz. Without a doubt, they are equipment that they mark a real milestone in terms of speed.


For its part, the AMD company is also committed to increasing the speed of its processors. This is the case with the AMD Phenom. These are the first multicore processors of this company. This is what the Phenom II and Athlon II models look like. In particular, the Phenom appears to have a capacity of 65nm to 45nm. Thanks to this, the cache memory is increased.


Both companies, Intel and AMD, are at the forefront of creating microprocessors, so it's common to wonder what the differences are between Intel and AMD microprocessors and which ones are better.


Finally, we leave you a summary of the fastest microprocessors on the market:

  • AMD Ryzen Threadripper 299WX: Speed ​​4.2 GHz and has 32 cores.
  • Intel Core i9 7980XE: 2,60 GHz speed and 18 cores. In addition to a memory of 128 GB.
  • Intel Core i9 7940x: 3,10 GHz speed, 14 cores and 19,25 MB of cache.
  • AMR Ryzen Threadripper 2950x:  4,4 GHz speed and 40 MB cache.
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